Non-zero goal, refractive cylinder, corneal astigmatism There appears to be different terminology describing the same principles when it comes to astigmatism treatment and analysis. This is something you encountered along your journey – is this what initiated the Alpins Method to achieve a standardized means of reporting astigmatic outcomes? Incisions were based on the steep corneal meridian and refractive laser surgery purely on the manifest refractive cylinder, which in many cases, did not match the corneal astigmatism in magnitude and/or orientation. I wanted a systematic approach to address refractive, cataract and corneal surgery. One in which the terminology was consistent.